There are too many subjects within the book of Romans to create an exhaustive commentary in this space. Each book in the Bible presumes that the reader holds a certain prior knowledge, like Jesus referring to Hebrew cultural norms and practices to reference the things in the Kingdom. The Apostles held a Jewish mindset and understanding before the outpouring of the spirit. (Luke 24:44-49) to the roots of salvation. Jesus, God in Flesh, knew that the epistles would be written to edify the saints, who followed what Peter preached in Acts.
The theologically agreed on date that Paul wrote Romans is 58 A.D. He wrote the book of Romans from the city of Corinth during a three-month visit to Greece. (Acts 20:2-3) It is considered the greatest of Paul’s Epistles, while Galatians is considered the “Manga Carta” of Christian Liberty, the book of Romans has been considered the “Constitution” of Christianity. The date of the writing of the book of Romans was a shy 30 years after the crucifixion, so it would be fresh in the memory of the saints that would be in the “Church.” What was the origin of the Church in Rome? Well, the biblical origin of the Church was established in the book of Acts. There is no reference in the book of Romans of Peter’s supposed influence as some Church’s claim.
So? What about the actual book? The language the epistles was Greek, more specifically the “common dialect”, the Greek that was considered the language of universal intercourse of that age.(From International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Electronic Database)
As far as the layout of the letter goes Romans can be divided up for distinct sections that deal with specific subjects.
1. Chapters 1-8 deal with which with problems of unrighteousness and its effects.
2. Chapters 9-11 Deal with problems of the Jewish people, God’s chosen people of the old Testament.
3. Chapters 12-15 deal wit practical questions that they had about living a Christ-like life.
4. Chapter 16 is a letter of introduction for Phoebe and a list of final personal greetings.
This letter is positioned just ahead of the Pauline epistles and happens to be more comprehensive and systematic than the other documents. It contains Paul’s theology, both practical and theoretical, by which he lived and died. It gives the clearest and fullest explanations of the doctrines of Sin and Grace.
Various quotes about the importance of Romans have been made by figures across multiple denominational backgrounds. “ The chief book of the New Testament and the purest Gospel,” stated Martin Luther. Coleridge called it “The profoundest book in existence.” Meyer called it “The greatest and richest of all the apostolic works.” The quote that probably expresses the most possible beauty was made by Godet who called it “The cathedral of the Christian faith.” (From Schaff’s A history of the Church)